samedi 25 mars 2017

Félix Vicq d'Azyr

Félix Vicq d'Azyr, créateur révolutionnaire de l'anatomie comparée 

Paul Mazliak


Broché: 198 pages
Editeur : Hermann (20 février 2017)
Collection : HR.HIST.SCIENCE
Langue : Français
ISBN-13: 978-2705693732


Le médecin français Félix Vicq d’Azyr (1748-1794) fut un précurseur révolutionnaire. En créant l’anatomie comparée, il ouvrit la voie à la théorie de l’évolution et, en étudiant les « maladies des bêtes à cornes » (épizooties), il souligna le lien entre connaissances scientifiques et développement économique de la société.
Les études de Vicq d’Azyr entraînèrent la création de la Société royale de médecine (1776), ancêtre de l’actuelle Académie de médecine. Quant à son Nouveau plan de constitution de la médecine en France, présenté en 1790 devant l’Assemblée constituante, il contenait nombre de préconisations aujourd’hui réalisées : l’enseignement de la médecine se fait en français et non plus en latin, les matières fondamentales et les disciplines cliniques sont désormais associées dans les cursus, les centres hospitalo-universitaires ont été créés, les bourses d’études existent et la Sécurité sociale a vu le jour.

Le spiritualisme au XIXe siècle en Nouvelle-Orléans

Spiritualism in Nineteenth-Century New Orleans: The Life and Times of Henry Louis Rey 

Melissa Daggett

 Hardcover: 208 pages
Publisher: University Press of Mississippi; 1 edition (December 2, 2016)
Language: English
ISBN-13: 978-1496810083

Modern American Spiritualism blossomed in the 1850s and continued as a viable faith into the 1870s. Because of its diversity and openness to new cultures and religions, New Orleans provided fertile ground to nurture Spiritualism, and many séance circles flourished in the Creole Faubourgs of Tremé and Marigny as well as the American sector of the city. Melissa Daggett focuses on Le Cercle Harmonique, the francophone séance circle of Henry Louis Rey (1831–1894), a Creole of color who was a key civil rights activist, author, and Civil War and Reconstruction leader. His life has so far remained largely in the shadows of New Orleans history, partly due to a language barrier.

Spiritualism in Nineteenth-Century New Orleans focuses on the turbulent years between the late antebellum period and the end of Reconstruction. Translating and interpreting numerous primary sources and one of the only surviving registers of séance proceedings, Daggett has opened a window into a fascinating life as well as a period of tumult and change. She provides unparalleled insights into the history of the Creoles of color and renders a better understanding of New Orleans’s complex history. The author weaves an intriguing tale of the supernatural, of chaotic post-bellum politics, of transatlantic linkages, and of the personal triumphs and tragedies of Rey as a notable citizen and medium. Wonderful illustrations, reproductions of the original spiritual communications, and photographs, many of which have never before appeared in published form, accompany this study of Rey and his world.

Fictions identitaires, fictions alimentaires

« Dis-moi ce que tu manges, je te dirai ce que tu es » : fictions identitaires, fictions alimentaires

Appel à communications

Colloque international, Strasbourg, 8-10 novembre 2017


L’aphorisme qui donne son titre à ce colloque est sans doute la formule la plus célèbre de Brillat-Savarin qui, dans sa Physiologie du goût (1825), ambitionnait de proposer une réflexion sur l’alimentation à la fois pratique, esthétique, philosophique, et sociopolitique. Très tôt repris dans le discours gastronomique du XIXe siècle, cet aphorisme délivre une vérité dont les discours anthropologique et sociologique se sont aujourd’hui emparés. En témoigne, en particulier, le développement des travaux relevant de l’histoire culturelle de l’alimentation et, dans le domaine anglo-saxon, les nombreuses approches contemporaines que les « food studies » essaient de fédérer.

Pour qui s’intéresse à « l’anthropos-mangeur » ou « phaganthrope » (Claude Fischler), le lien entre les choix alimentaires et la construction d’une identité constitue en effet une problématique centrale où se croisent facteurs physiologiques et idéologiques. Considérer le fait alimentaire comme un fait identitaire suppose certes que l’on s’interroge sur les goûts propres de l’individu, mais surtout sur la manière dont un contexte socioculturel les définit et induit une reconnaissance, comme l’appartenance à une communauté, une classe sociale, une nation, voire une « race » ou un « genre ». L’identité envisagée par le prisme de l’alimentation mobilise par conséquent un ensemble de représentations assez vaste, globalement « culturelles », mais qui s’ancrent dans une histoire (partagée ou refusée) et dans une idéologie (implicite ou revendiquée). Savoir qui l’on est par le biais de ce que l’on consomme pose finalement moins la question du rapport à soi (ce que j’aime, les goûts qui me définissent) que celle du rapport à l’Autre, tant il est vrai que l’incorporation constitue une expérience fondamentale de l’altérité, dont l’issue (rejet ou reconnaissance) dépasse le simple critère du penchant naturel. La relation que suppose cette incorporation témoigne en outre du poids de l’imaginaire dans l’élaboration du goût, l’aliment se trouvant investi de vertus magiques, positives ou négatives, et d’un ensemble de représentations dont l’évolution de la diététique ne rend que partiellement compte.

Étudiés de longue date par l’anthropologie historique, ces phénomènes parcourent également la littérature, sensible aux discours normatifs sur la nutrition mais aussi et surtout à la part d’imaginaire sollicitée par l’incorporation alimentaire. C’est cette mise en œuvre que le présent colloque souhaite constituer en objet d’étude littéraire, en analysant les implications et conséquences du célèbre aphorisme de Brillat-Savarin, et en explorant les fictions auxquelles il a pu fournir un principe de composition. Quelle est par exemple la place que l’œuvre littéraire accorde à l’alimentation dans la légitimation de déterminismes sociaux, sexuels ou raciaux ? Que disent les choix alimentaires des croyances représentées ? Dans quelle mesure participent-ils de la construction du personnage et de la mise en place d’une axiologie, voire d’une imagologie littéraire ?

Ouvertes d’un point de vue chronologique, les propositions de communication pourront se consacrer à l’archéologie de l’axiome de Brillat-Savarin, à son actualisation au XIXe siècle, ou à sa postérité. Elles devront néanmoins prendre pour cadre de référence la culture occidentale, et interroger la manière dont les pratiques alimentaires mobilisées dans la fiction participent d’une représentation identitaire.

Les propositions devront s’inscrire en priorité dans l’un des axes suivants :

Fictions alimentaires, fictions essentialistes :

- Identité alimentaire et identité sexuelle (ce que mangent les hommes / ce que mangent les femmes)

- Identité alimentaire et théories des races
Fictions alimentaires, fictions sociales :

- Choix alimentaires et appartenance sociale

- Choix alimentaires et choix politiques (y a-t-il une alimentation de gauche ou de droite ? quels liens sont établis entre régime politique et régime alimentaire ?) 
Fictions alimentaires et genèse

- Diététique et création (choix alimentaires et fables auctoriales)

- Alimentation et sémiologie du personnage

- Alimentation et mythes (ce que mangent les Dieux / ce que mangent les hommes ; Tantale, Midas, etc.)


Les propositions de communication, accompagnées d’une courte notice biobibliographique, sont à adresser à Bertrand Marquer (bmarquer@unistra.fr) avant le 15 mai 2017. Elles seront examinées par le comité scientifique, qui communiquera sa réponse fin juin.

Le colloque aura lieu à Strasbourg du 8 au 10 novembre 2017 et donnera lieu à publication.


Comité scientifique
Guy Ducrey (Université de Strasbourg)
Françoise Hache-Bissette (Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines)
Anthony Mangeon (Université de Strasbourg)
Hugues Marchal (Université de Bâle)
Bertrand Marquer (Université de Strasbourg)
Muriel Ott (Université de Strasbourg)
Christine Ott (Université de Francfort)
Éléonore Reverzy (Université Paris 3-Sorbonne Nouvelle)
Geneviève Sicotte (Université Concordia)

vendredi 24 mars 2017

Tertullien et l'enfant à naître

Tertullian and the Unborn Child: Christian and Pagan Attitudes in Historical Perspective

Julian Barr


Series: Medicine and the Body in Antiquity
Hardcover: 208 pages
Publisher: Routledge; 1 edition (February 24, 2017)
Language: English
ISBN-13: 978-1472467409

Tertullian of Carthage was the earliest Christian writer to argue against abortion at length, and the first surviving Latin author to consider the unborn child in detail. This book is the first comprehensive analysis of Tertullian’s attitude towards the foetus and embryo. Examining Tertullian’s works in light of Roman literary and social history, Julian Barr proposes that Tertullian's comments on the unborn should be read as rhetoric ancillary to his primary arguments. Tertullian’s engagement in the art of rhetoric also explains his tendency towards self-contradiction. He argued that human existence began at conception in some treatises and not in others. Tertullian’s references to the unborn hence should not be plucked out of context, lest they be misread. Tertullian borrowed, modified, and discarded theories of ensoulment according to their usefulness for individual treatises. So long as a single work was internally consistent, Tertullian was satisfied. He elaborated upon previous Christian traditions and selectively borrowed from ancient embryological theory to prove specific theological and moral points. Tertullian was more influenced by Roman custom than he would perhaps have admitted, since the contrast between pagan and Christian attitudes on abortion was more rhetorical than real.

Grossesse et naissance

Pregnancy and Childbirth: History, Medicine and Anthropology. 

International Symposium

May, 30-31 2017

Sala della Societa’ Medica Chirurgica,
Palazzo dell’Archiginnasio, Piazza Galvani 1, Bologna.



30 May, Tuesday afternoon


14.30 - 15.00
Welcome and Introduction
Costanza Gislon Dopfel (Saint Mary’s College of California, USA) - Bruno Cola (Presidente della Società Medica Chirurgica di Bologna) - Luigi Tomassini (Direttore del Dipartimento di Beni Culturali)
Sala Società Medica Chirurgica, Palazzo dell'Archiginnasio, piazza Galvani 1, Bologna

15.00 - 15.30
Introductory Lecture
Charles Burnett (Warburg Institute, U.K)

Panel 1: Medicine and the Transmission of Knowledge
15.30 - 15.50
Abraham Ibn Ezra’s Role in the Creation and Diffusion of the Trutina Hermetis
Shlomo Sela (Dept. of Jewish Thought, Bar-Ilan University, State of Israel)
15.50 - 16.10
Fetal Death in High Medieval Pregnancy
Fiona Harris-Stoertz (Department of History, Trent University, Canada)
16.10 - 16.30
Postmortem Caesarean Section in the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Period: Myth, Law, Religion and Surgery
Alessandra Foscati (Università di Bologna, Italy)
16.30 - 16.40 Coffee break

16.40 - 17.00
Risk as a Theme in the History of Childbirth
Adrian Wilson (Faculty of Arts, University of Leeds, U.K.)
17.00 - 17.20
Gravidanza e feto nelle dissertazioni mediche del XVIII secolo
Iolanda Ventura (Université d’Orléans – IRHT Paris)
17.20 - 17.40
Da Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire a Cesare Taruffi: alle origini della moderna teratologia
Stefano Arieti (Università di Bologna, Italy)
17.40 Discussion

18.00 Guided tour to Palazzo dell’Archiginnasio and the Anatomical Theatre

Cocktail party (dinner)



31 May, Wednesday

Panel 2: Texts and Iconography

9.30 - 9.50
Giving Birth in the Garden of Eden
Alessandro Scafi (Warburg Institute, U.K)
9.50 - 10.10
La figura di Eva, prima madre nella letteratura apocrifa e nell’iconografia armena
Valentina Calzolari Bouvier (Centre de recherches arménologiques, Université de Genéve, Switzerland)
10.10 - 10.30
The Origin and Role of Illustrations in Medieval Obstetrical Texts
Francesca Marchetti (Indipendent researcher, U.K.)
10.30 - 10.50
Reality and Imagination in the Iconography of the Lying-in Room
Costanza Gislon Dopfel (Dept. of Art and Art History)
10.50 - 11.10
La scena del parto. Un confronto fra fonti visive e testi scritti (XVI-XVIII s.)
Claudia Pancino (Università di Bologna, Italy)
11.10 - 11.20 Coffee break

11.20 Discussion

12.00 Guided tour to Palazzo Poggi and the “Sala di Ostetricia”
The tour will be guided by Roberto Balzani, Presidente del Sistema Museale di Ateneo


13.30 Lunch


Panel 3: Religion, Medicine, Law and Childbirth Rituals

15.00 - 15.20
Mesopotamian Childbirth Incantations
Lorenzo Verderame (Università di Roma, Italy)
15.20 - 15.40
Understanding the Role and Seat of Semen in Sasanian Iran during Late Antiquity
Paolo Delaini (Università di Bologna, Italy)
15.40 - 16.00
Vie dell’immaginario: sogni terapeutici e prassi votiva
Luigi Canetti (Università di Bologna, Italy)
16.00 - 16.20
‘E cussì se fanno homicidiale di proprii fioli’: parti gemellari tra teorie mediche e implicazioni morali dall’Antichità al Basso Medioevo
Gabriella Zuccolin (University of Cambridge, U.K)
16.20 - 16.40
Birth Girdles as Banderoles
Mary Morse (Rider University, USA)
16.40 - 17.00
Lo stato giuridico della madre e del neonato nelle colonie veneziane durante il Basso Medioevo
Antonella Parmeggiani (Università di Bologna, Italy)
17.00 - 17.20 Coffee break

Panel 4: Anthropology and Archaeology of Childbirth

17.20 - 17.40
Mother and Child: Archaeological Evidence of Childbirth Complications in Medieval Normandy
Cécile Chapelain de Seréville-Niel (CRAHAM) , Raphaëlle Lefebvre (CRAHAM-Inrap, France)
17.40 - 18.00
Il “venire alla luce” tra gioie e complicazioni. La casistica dei parti gemellari dal XVI al XVIII secolo sulla comunità alto appenninica di Roccapelago
Mirko Traversari (Università di Bologna, Italy) , Giorgio Gruppioni (Università di Bologna, Italy)
18.00 - 18.20
Tra le braccia della madre: evidenze antropologiche di morte al parto nella Ravenna del XVIII secolo
Emanuela Gualdi-Russo, Sabrina Masotti (Università di Ferrara, Italy)
18.20 - 18.40
Tra antropologia, genetica ed ostetricia: studio di possibili casi di morte per parto nella necropoli ospedaliera di Forlì Campus (XVIII secolo)
Elisabetta Cilli (Università di Bologna) , Gaia Gabanini (Università di Bologna)
18.40 Discussion - Conclusion

La lutte des professions de santé pour la reconnaissance

Marketplace, Power, Prestige: The Healthcare Professions’ Struggle for Recognition
Developments, Conflicts, and Areas of Tension among Healthcare Professions in the Twentieth Century



Call for Papers


Institut für Geschichte der Medizin der Robert Bosch Stiftung

15.11.-17.11.2017
German Version below

The differentiation of non-physician healthcare professions that occurred at the same time as the specialisation of medicine and the development of medical technology gained momentum at the end of the nineteenth century. At this point, the academically educated doctors had already ousted their less-qualified competitors, such as traditional surgeons (Wundärzte or Handwerkschirurgen), from the medical marketplace. This development put doctors in a position, from which they had since secured great influence in the state accreditation process of new or newly regulated healthcare professions: a status that they still possess today. According to the German Vocational Training Act (Berufsbildungsgesetz), for example, the state medical associations (Landesärztekammern) are responsible for education and training of medical professionals.

As widely known, the medical care of the population is currently facing issues in a number of areas. Therefore, it is in the interest of the state and society to allow alternatives to the care by physicians. Especially in recent years, the delegation of doctors’ tasks to other healthcare professions has been discussed. Already in 2010, the Cooperative State University (Duale Hochschule) in Karlsruhe established a bachelor degree as physician assistants (Arztassistent). Examples for this endeavour are corresponding job profiles, which partly exist in other countries since decades. In this context, the professionalization or academisation of nursing plays an increasingly important role. One current example for this development represents the model course ‘Evidence Based Nursing’ at the Medical Faculty of the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, established in 2016.

The shift of competency and agency, however, led and leads into a number of problems as well. Therefore, the main focus of the conference will be the conflicts and areas of tensions, which accompanied the development or differentiation of the healthcare professions.

For example, the reasons and topics will be discussed because of which conflicts among medical professions occurred. Which parties were involved, which coalitions were established, how did the parties present themselves, and for what aims did they campaign for? Of particular concern will be the question, to what extent contributed such disputes to the shift on the suppliers’ side in the medical marketplace and what consequences had this development on the demanders’ side.

The key questions can be discussed on three levels and with retrospective considerations of the pre-modern period (monopolisation, professionalization).

1. Conflicts and Areas of Tensions Within one Healthcare Profession
On the first level of investigation, the negotiation process within one healthcare profession will be analysed. Within nursing, topics such as the conflicts between men and women, migrants and natives, or also between academic and non-academic people would be possible. Within the doctors’ profession, the main questions would be the conflicts between medical specialist and general practitioners, hospital and private doctors, or also between conventional and complementary or alternative medical practitioners.

2. Conflicts and Areas of Tensions Between Different Healthcare Professions
The second level puts the lines of conflict and tension between the different healthcare professions at the core of the investigation. Which occupational groups exercised influence on the development of adjacent occupations? For this level, it would be possible to analyse the disputes between conventional and alternative practitioners, doctors and osteopaths, psychiatrists and psychologists, gynaecologists and midwives, doctors and nurses, or doctors and psychotherapists.

3. Transnational Perspectives
The transnational perspective describes the comparison of the developments in Germany with other European countries. The question is how the different structural organisation of medical care impacted the development of healthcare professions? A comparison between centralist and federalist or capitalist and socialist systems would be of particular interest to the third level.

Presentations, Discussion, and Reimbursements
A slot of 45 minutes will be given to every presenter, in which a maximum of 20 minutes should be used for the paper and 25 minutes will be reserved for discussion. The spoken language at the conference will be English. The participation at the conference will be funded by the Institute for History of Medicine of the Robert Bosch Foundation, which includes the costs of accommodation, conference meals, and 2nd class train tickets for traveling to and from Stuttgart (only in exceptional cases, cheap flights will be reimbursed as well). Unfortunately, the costs incurred when traveling by car cannot be reimbursed.

Registration
To participate at the conference, please apply with an abstract of 400 words maximum, which includes title, research question, methods, and used sources as well as possible hypothesis and results, until 30 June 2017 via post or email to Dr Pierre Pfütsch and Dr Sylvelyn Hähner-Rombach, Institut für Geschichte der Medizin der Robert Bosch Stiftung, Straußweg 17, 70184 Stuttgart, Germany, or pierre.pfuetsch@igm-bosch.de and sylvelyn.haehner@igm-bosch.de.

jeudi 23 mars 2017

Histoires des maladies et de la médecine

Histoires des maladies et de la médecine 

Frédéric Bauduer


Broché: 160 pages
Editeur : Ellipses Market (6 janvier 2017)
Collection : Sciences humaines en médecine
Langue : Français
ISBN-13: 978-2340017238


Cet ouvrage rassemble un certain nombre de thématiques développées par l'auteur en première année des études de santé (PACES) au sein du module Histoire des sciences médicales dans le cadre de l'UE7 Santé- Société-Humanité. S'il s'adresse en premier lieu à des étudiants en Médecine, il est également susceptible d'intéresser un lectorat beaucoup plus large désireux de mieux connaître certaines facettes de l'histoire des maladies et de l'art de les soigner. Le Professeur Frédéric Bauduer est praticien hospitalier au Centre hospitalier de Bayonne et assure des enseignements dans plusieurs cursus à l'Université de Bordeaux. Ses principales thématiques de recherche incluent l'étude bio-culturelle et la génétique des populations, l'hématologie géographique, la santé à travers les âges, la médecine évolutionniste.

Poste en humanités et médecine

Tenure-Track Assistant Professor in the Humanities and Medicine

Call for applications


University of Hong Kong - Centre for the Humanities and Medicine, Faculty of Arts 

Location: Hong Kong
Salary: Globally competitive 
Hours: Full Time
Contract Type: Contract / Temporary


Closes: 15th May 2017
Job Ref: 201700248


Applications are invited for tenure-track appointment as Assistant Professor in the Humanities and Medicine in the Centre for the Humanities and Medicine, to commence on September 1, 2017 or as soon as possible thereafter, on a three-year fixed-term basis, with the possibility of renewal and with consideration for tenure before the expiry of a second three-year fixed-term contract. 

The Centre for the Humanities and Medicine at the University of Hong Kong is a unique research hub with a focus on the social, cultural, and historical dimensions of health, medicine, and disease. Bringing together faculties from across the University, the Centre is recognized for its cross-disciplinary research on infectious disease, with recent projects on the history of plague, ecologies of malaria, viral imaginaries, and technologies of epidemic surveillance. The Centre promotes research that grapples with complex regional and global challenges and it has forged successful collaborative links with many leading international institutions since 2009. 

Applicants should have a Ph.D. degree and a proven track-record of research in any area that complements the Centre’s existing strengths. In addition, teamwork skills are essential. As a key member of the Centre for the Humanities and Medicine, the appointee will be expected to help develop the Centre’s interdisciplinary research programme and deepen links with the Faculty of Medicine. While primarily based in the Centre, he/she will hold a concurrent appointment in a relevant academic unit of the Faculty of Arts, where he/she will be expected to teach a half-load of disciplinary undergraduate courses and to teach postgraduate students. The University and the Hong Kong Research Grants Council provide substantial competitive funding for research projects of many kinds. Teaching development grants are also available to assist with the development of innovative undergraduate courses. 

Information about the Centre can be obtained at http://www.chm.hku.hk. Enquiries about the post should be sent to Dr. Robert Peckham (e-mail: rpeckham@hku.hk). 

A globally competitive remuneration package commensurate with the appointee’s qualifications and experience will be offered, as well as annual leave and medical benefits. At current rates, salaries tax does not exceed 15% of gross income. The appointment will attract a contract-end gratuity and University contribution to a retirement benefits scheme, totalling up to 15% of basic salary. Housing benefits will be provided as applicable. 

Applicants should send a completed application form, a letter of application, a full C.V., and a writing sample of scholarly work, along with three reference letters sent by their recommenders to chm1@hku.hk. Application forms (341/1111) can be downloaded at http://www.hku.hk/apptunit/form-ext.doc. Further particulars can be obtained at http://jobs.hku.hk. Please clearly state the post applied for on the application form. Closes May 15, 2017. 

The University thanks applicants for their interest, but advises that only candidates shortlisted for interviews will be notified of the application result. 

The University is committed to diversity and inclusivity. To promote gender diversity and professional advancement of women, the Faculty of Arts expressly encourages qualified women to apply.